June 14, 2024

Understanding RTB Advertising – A Comprehensive Guide to How it Works

21 min read

Real-Time Bidding, or simply RTB, is a type of programmatic advertising that has revolutionized the way online advertising works. In the past, buying and selling ad inventory was a lengthy and manual process. However, with the advent of RTB, advertisers now have the ability to bid on and purchase ad impressions in real-time.

So, how does RTB advertising work? It all starts when a user visits a website or an app that has ad space available. The publisher of the website or app will send out a request to an ad exchange, indicating that there is an opportunity to show an ad to the user. This request contains information about the user, such as their demographics, interests, and browsing behavior.

Advertisers who are interested in showing their ads to this user will then participate in an auction through a demand-side platform (DSP). The DSP will use the information provided by the ad exchange to determine the value of showing an ad to this particular user. Advertisers can set specific targeting parameters and bid an amount they are willing to pay for the impression.

The highest bidding advertiser will win the auction and their ad will be shown to the user in real-time. This entire process happens in a fraction of a second, ensuring that the ad shown is relevant and valuable to the user. RTB advertising allows advertisers to target their audience more effectively, while publishers can maximize their ad revenue by selling their inventory to the highest bidder.

In conclusion, RTB advertising has transformed the world of online advertising by enabling real-time bidding and delivering more targeted and relevant ads to users. By using sophisticated algorithms and data analysis, advertisers can reach their desired audience with precision, while publishers can optimize their ad space and generate higher revenue. RTB advertising is a win-win for both advertisers and publishers, and its popularity is only expected to grow in the future.

What is RTB advertising?

Real-Time Bidding (RTB) advertising is a programmatic buying method used in the digital advertising industry. It allows advertisers to bid for ad impressions in real time, on an individual basis, as they become available. This means that instead of purchasing ad space in advance, advertisers can bid for each impression in real time, based on the data and targeting options available.

RTB advertising works through an auction-based system. When a user visits a website, the website sends a request to an advertising exchange, which then holds an auction among interested advertisers. Advertisers can place their bids within milliseconds, and the highest bidder will win the impression. This process happens instantaneously, allowing advertisers to reach their target audience in real time.

How does RTB advertising work?

RTB advertising involves multiple parties and processes. Here is a simplified overview of how it works:

  1. A user visits a website that uses RTB advertising.
  2. The website sends a request to an ad exchange or supply-side platform (SSP), indicating that an ad impression is available.
  3. The ad exchange or SSP holds an auction, inviting interested advertisers who use a demand-side platform (DSP) to participate.
  4. Advertisers using a DSP submit their bids, specifying the maximum amount they are willing to pay for the impression.
  5. The ad exchange or SSP selects the highest bidder and serves their ad to the user in real time.
  6. The selected ad is displayed on the website to the user.
  7. The entire process happens within milliseconds, allowing for real-time targeting and optimization.

RTB advertising offers several advantages, including better targeting, increased efficiency, and the ability to track and optimize campaigns in real time. It allows advertisers to reach their target audience more effectively, and potentially achieve higher conversion rates. Advertisers can also benefit from the flexibility and control offered by RTB advertising, as they can adjust their bids and targeting options in real time to maximize their campaign’s performance.

If you are interested in RTB advertising, you can explore CPA advertising network, which offers a comprehensive platform for buying click traffic and reaching your target audience efficiently.

How does it work?

RTB advertising, or real-time bidding advertising, works by using programmatic technology to automate the buying and selling of digital ad inventory. The process begins when a user visits a website or uses a mobile app that has ad space available.

Once the ad space is available, it is auctioned off in real-time to advertisers who are interested in displaying their ads to the user. This auction takes place in milliseconds, allowing for nearly instant ad placement.

During the auction, advertisers submit bids on the ad space based on their targeting criteria, budget, and campaign goals. The highest bidder wins the auction and their ad is displayed to the user.

RTB advertising allows advertisers to target their ads to specific audiences based on factors such as demographics, interests, and browsing behavior. This level of targeting helps to ensure that ads are relevant to the user, increasing the likelihood of engagement and conversion.

Furthermore, RTB advertising provides transparency and control for advertisers. They can monitor the performance of their campaigns in real-time, make adjustments as needed, and optimize their ad spend to achieve the best results.

With the advancement of programmatic technology, RTB advertising has become more efficient and effective. Advertisers can now reach their target audience in a highly targeted and automated manner, saving both time and money.

To enhance engagement and optimize performance, advertisers can choose from various ad formats such as display ads, video ads, native ads, and more. Top performing Ad formats should be considered based on the campaign objectives and target audience.

Benefits of RTB Advertising

Real-time bidding (RTB) advertising offers several benefits for advertisers, publishers, and consumers. Here are some of the key advantages:

1. Targeted Audience

With RTB advertising, advertisers have the ability to target specific audiences based on their demographics, interests, browsing behavior, and more. This targeted approach allows advertisers to reach the right people at the right time, increasing the chances of conversions and maximizing the campaign’s effectiveness.

2. Increased Transparency

RTB advertising provides greater transparency compared to traditional ad-buying methods. Advertisers have access to real-time data and insights, allowing them to evaluate campaign performance, make data-driven decisions, and optimize their strategies on the go.

3. Cost Efficiency

By bidding in real-time, advertisers can optimize their ad spend and only pay for impressions that are likely to generate value. Advertisers can set their desired bid prices and budgets, ensuring that they are getting the most out of their advertising budget.

4. Increased Reach

RTB advertising opens up opportunities for advertisers to reach audiences across multiple platforms and devices, including desktops, mobile phones, tablets, and smart TVs. This expanded reach allows advertisers to engage with consumers wherever they are, increasing the reach and impact of their campaigns.

5. Real-time Optimization

RTB advertising enables advertisers to make real-time adjustments to their campaigns based on performance data. They can optimize ad creative, targeting parameters, and bidding strategies instantly, ensuring that their campaigns are always relevant and effective.

6. Ad Fraud Prevention

RTB advertising platforms often have built-in measures to prevent ad fraud. These measures help to ensure that ads are being served to real users and not bots, protecting advertisers from wasting their budget on fraudulent impressions.

Overall, RTB advertising offers advertisers an efficient and effective way to reach their target audience, maximize their ad spend, and optimize their campaigns in real-time. It provides transparency, flexibility, and cost-efficiency, making it a valuable tool in the modern digital advertising landscape.

Increased targeting

One of the key advantages of RTB advertising is the ability to target specific audiences with precision. With traditional advertising methods, marketers often had to rely on broad demographic data to reach their target audience. However, RTB allows advertisers to segment and target audiences based on a variety of factors, including demographics, interests, behaviors, and even real-time data.

Demographics: RTB platforms can target users based on demographic information such as age, gender, location, and income level. This allows advertisers to deliver highly relevant ads to specific demographic groups.

Interests: RTB platforms utilize data from third-party providers to understand users’ interests and preferences. By analyzing browsing behavior and previous online interactions, advertisers can target users who have shown an affinity for specific topics or products.

Behaviors: RTB platforms can track users’ online behaviors, such as search queries, website visits, and past purchases. This allows advertisers to target users who have demonstrated a specific behavior, such as searching for a particular product or visiting a competitor’s website.

Real-time data: RTB platforms can make use of real-time data to target users based on current events or contextual relevance. For example, if a user is browsing travel websites, advertisers can deliver ads for hotel deals or vacation packages.

By leveraging these targeting capabilities, advertisers can ensure that their ads are seen by the most relevant audience, increasing the likelihood of engagement and conversion. This level of precision targeting also helps to reduce wasted impressions and ad spend, as ads are only shown to users who are most likely to be interested in the content.

Cost-effective

One of the key advantages of RTB advertising is its cost-effectiveness. By using real-time bidding, advertisers can maximize their ad budgets and ensure that they are only paying for ad impressions that are valuable to them. Unlike traditional advertising methods, where advertisers must pay a fixed rate for a certain number of impressions, RTB allows advertisers to set a maximum bid for each impression. This means that advertisers only pay when their ad is shown to a user who meets their targeting criteria.

Additionally, RTB allows advertisers to take advantage of dynamic pricing, where the price of an ad impression is determined in real-time based on factors such as the user’s demographic information, browsing behavior, and the overall demand for ad inventory. This means that advertisers can take advantage of lower prices when there is less competition, and higher prices when demand is high. This dynamic pricing model allows advertisers to optimize their ad spend and achieve better overall ROI.

In addition to the cost benefits, RTB also provides advertisers with increased transparency and control over their ad campaigns. Advertisers have access to real-time data and analytics, allowing them to monitor the performance of their ads and make adjustments as needed. This level of control ensures that advertisers can optimize their campaigns for maximum effectiveness and efficiency.

In conclusion, RTB advertising offers a cost-effective solution for advertisers looking to reach their target audience. By utilizing real-time bidding and dynamic pricing, advertisers can maximize their ad budgets and achieve better overall ROI. Additionally, the increased transparency and control provided by RTB allows advertisers to optimize their campaigns for maximum effectiveness.

Real-time bidding

Real-time bidding (RTB) is a method of buying and selling online advertising in real time through an auction-based process. This advertising model allows advertisers to bid on ad impressions, also known as inventory, in real time.

When a user visits a website or opens a mobile app, the publisher of that site or app offers ad inventory for auction on an ad exchange. Advertisers then bid on this inventory, specifying the maximum amount they are willing to pay for each impression. The highest bidder wins the auction and their ad is served to the user.

RTB enables advertisers to target their ads with precision. Advertisers can use data points such as demographics, location, interests, and browsing history to reach their desired audience. This allows for more relevant and personalized advertising experiences for users, while maximizing the value of each impression for advertisers.

Another benefit of RTB is its transparency and efficiency. Advertisers have full visibility into the performance of their ad campaigns, including metrics such as impressions, clicks, and conversions. This data can be used to optimize campaigns in real time, ensuring that advertisers are getting the best possible return on investment.

Key players in RTB

In the RTB ecosystem, there are several key players:

  • Advertisers: These are the companies or brands looking to promote their products or services through online advertising.
  • Publishers: These are the owners of websites or mobile apps that offer ad inventory for auction.
  • Ad exchanges: These are the platforms where the auctions take place, connecting advertisers and publishers.
  • Demand-side platforms (DSPs): These are the tools used by advertisers to manage their RTB campaigns and bid on ad inventory.
  • Supply-side platforms (SSPs): These are the tools used by publishers to manage their ad inventory and participate in the RTB auction.

The RTB process

The RTB process involves several steps:

  1. The user visits a website or opens a mobile app.
  2. The publisher of that site or app offers ad inventory for auction on an ad exchange.
  3. Advertisers bid on this inventory in real time, specifying the maximum amount they are willing to pay for each impression.
  4. The highest bidder wins the auction and their ad is served to the user.
  5. The advertiser’s ad is displayed to the user, either as a banner, video, or other ad format.
  6. The performance of the ad is tracked and measured, and the data is used to optimize future campaigns.

Overall, real-time bidding is a highly efficient and targeted advertising method that benefits both advertisers and publishers. It allows advertisers to reach their desired audience with precision, while maximizing the value of each impression, and offers publishers the opportunity to monetize their ad inventory effectively.

RTB Advertising Process

The real-time bidding (RTB) advertising process is a complex and dynamic system that allows advertisers to bid for and purchase ad inventory in real time. Below is a step-by-step breakdown of how the RTB advertising process works:

  1. User visits a website or mobile app: The process starts when a user visits a website or mobile app that has ad space available for auction.
  2. Publisher offers ad space for auction: The publisher, who owns the website or app, makes the ad space available for auction through an ad exchange or supply-side platform (SSP).
  3. User data is collected: Data about the user, such as demographics, browsing history, and interests, is collected and used to create user profiles.
  4. Ad request is sent: When the user loads a webpage or uses an app, an ad request is sent to the ad exchange or SSP.
  5. Auction takes place: Advertisers interested in targeting the specific user are notified of the ad request and can place bids to win the ad space in real time.
  6. Winning bid is determined: The auction algorithm calculates the highest bid and determines the winning advertiser.
  7. Ad is served: The winning advertiser’s ad is served to the user in real time, usually within milliseconds.
  8. User sees the ad: The user sees the ad on the website or app.
  9. Performance is evaluated: The performance of the ad is tracked and evaluated to determine its effectiveness.
  10. Payment is made: The winning advertiser pays the amount of their bid to the ad exchange or SSP.

The RTB advertising process allows for efficient and targeted advertising, as it enables advertisers to reach their desired audience at the right time and place. By leveraging real-time data and automated auctions, RTB advertising provides a streamlined and cost-effective way for advertisers to connect with their target customers.

Publisher sets up inventory

Before an ad can be served through real-time bidding (RTB), the publisher must set up their inventory. This involves defining the available ad spaces on their website or app and specifying the targeting criteria for each ad space.

The publisher starts by identifying the different types of ad spaces they have, such as banners, interstitials, or native ads. They then determine the size and format requirements for each ad space. For example, a banner ad space might be 300×250 pixels, while an interstitial ad space might require full-screen display.

In addition to the technical specifications, the publisher also sets the targeting criteria for each ad space. This includes demographics, geography, behavior, or any other relevant factors. By defining these criteria, the publisher can ensure that the ads displayed on their website or app are as relevant as possible to their audience.

Once the inventory is set up, the publisher connects their ad server to a supply-side platform (SSP) or an ad exchange. This allows them to make their inventory available for ad buyers participating in real-time bidding auctions.

By properly setting up their inventory, publishers can maximize the value of their ad spaces and attract potential advertisers through real-time bidding.

Advertiser sets up campaigns

When utilizing RTB advertising, advertisers play a crucial role in setting up campaigns. Advertisers have the freedom to define the goals, target audience, and budget for each campaign. This allows them to have complete control over their advertising strategies and tailor them to reach their specific objectives.

The first step for advertisers is to determine their campaign objectives. This could be increasing brand awareness, driving website traffic, or generating more leads. By clearly defining their goals, advertisers can create effective ad campaigns that align with their desired outcomes.

Once the objectives are established, advertisers can then identify their target audience. They can use various targeting parameters such as demographics, geography, interests, and behavior to ensure their ads are shown to the right people. This helps in maximizing the efficiency of their campaigns and improves the overall chances of conversion.

After the target audience is selected, advertisers need to allocate their budget. They have the flexibility to set a specific budget for each campaign and can control how much they want to spend on impressions and clicks. Bids can be adjusted in real-time based on the performance of the ads, ensuring that advertisers are only paying for the ads that generate results.

Advertisers can also utilize tools provided by RTB advertising platforms to track the performance of their campaigns. They can monitor key metrics such as impressions, clicks, conversions, and return on investment (ROI). By analyzing this data, advertisers can make informed decisions and optimize their campaigns for better results.

In conclusion, advertisers play a crucial role in the RTB advertising ecosystem by setting up campaigns that align with their objectives, defining a target audience, allocating budgets, and monitoring performance. This level of control allows advertisers to maximize the effectiveness of their advertising efforts and achieve their desired outcomes.

Auction takes place

RTB advertising operates on an auction-based model, where advertisers bid for each impression in real-time. Once a user visits a webpage, information about the impression, such as the website, user demographics, and behavioral data, is passed to a supply-side platform (SSP).

The SSP then sends a bid request to multiple demand-side platforms (DSPs), which represent advertisers. The DSPs analyze the bid request and decide whether to place a bid for the impression based on their targeting criteria and available budget.

The DSPs submit their bids to the SSP, which evaluates each bid and selects the highest bidder to display their ad. The winning bid is determined based on the advertiser’s bid price, targeting parameters, and the ad’s relevance to the user. The entire process happens in milliseconds, allowing ads to be displayed in real-time.

Once the winning bid is determined, the SSP notifies the DSP, and the winning ad is served to the user’s browser. The user sees the ad, and the SSP records the impression. The advertiser is then billed for the ad placement, typically based on a cost-per-impression (CPM) model.

In addition to real-time bidding, RTB advertising also incorporates various targeting options, such as demographic targeting, geographic targeting, device targeting, and behavioral targeting. These targeting options allow advertisers to reach their desired audience effectively.

Overall, the auction-based nature of RTB advertising ensures that each impression is sold to the highest bidder, maximizing the value for both advertisers and publishers. It also enables advertisers to optimize their campaigns by adjusting bidding strategies based on real-time performance data.

Types of RTB Advertising

RTB advertising offers various types of ad formats and targeting options to reach the intended audience effectively. Here are some common types of RTB advertising:

1. Display Advertising: Display ads are a popular form of RTB advertising that uses graphics, images, or videos to promote products or services. These ads can appear as banners, pop-ups, or interstitial ads on websites and mobile apps.

2. Native Advertising: Native ads blend seamlessly with the content of a website or app, providing a non-disruptive and engaging user experience. They match the look and feel of the surrounding content, often appearing as sponsored articles or promoted listings.

3. Video Advertising: Video ads play short video clips before, during, or after online video content. This type of RTB advertising allows advertisers to deliver visually compelling messages and engage users with rich media.

4. Mobile Advertising: RTB advertising can specifically target mobile users by displaying ads on smartphones and tablets. Mobile ads can be in various formats, including banners, video, or native, and can leverage location-based targeting to reach users based on their proximity.

5. Social Media Advertising: RTB ad auctions also take place on social media platforms. Advertisers can bid to display ads on popular social networks like Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and LinkedIn. These ads can be in the form of images, videos, or sponsored posts.

6. Dynamic Creative Optimization: Dynamic ads personalize the advertising experience by delivering customized messages based on user data, such as browsing history or demographics. This helps improve relevance and increases the chances of conversion.

7. Retargeting: Retargeting allows advertisers to reconnect with users who have previously interacted with their website or app. It displays targeted ads to these users across various websites and platforms, reminding them of products they showed interest in.

These are just a few examples of the types of RTB advertising available. Advertisers can choose the most suitable format and targeting options based on their goals and target audience.

Open Auction

An open auction is one of the methods used in real-time bidding (RTB) advertising. It is a type of programmatic auction where multiple advertisers can bid for ad impressions in real time. In an open auction, the ad inventory is made available to multiple buyers, and the highest bidder wins the right to display their ad.

Here is how the open auction process works:

  1. Ad Request: When a user visits a webpage or opens a mobile app, an ad request is sent to an ad exchange or supply-side platform (SSP), indicating the available ad impressions.
  2. Auction Initialization: The SSP or ad exchange sends the ad request to multiple demand-side platforms (DSPs) to gather bids. DSPs analyze the user data and decide whether to participate in the auction.
  3. Bid Submission: DSPs submit their bids along with relevant targeting parameters and creative assets. The bids include the maximum amount the advertiser is willing to pay for the impression.
  4. Auction: The SSP or ad exchange receives the bids from the DSPs and conducts a real-time auction to determine the highest bidder. The auction takes place within milliseconds.
  5. Winner Selection: The highest bidder is selected, and their ad is served to the user. The winning DSP is notified and provides the ad creative to be displayed.
  6. Ad Display: The winning ad is displayed to the user on the webpage or mobile app, completing the RTB advertising process.

Open auctions offer advertisers the opportunity to reach a wide range of ad inventory across multiple publishers. Advertisers can set their own bids and budgets, allowing for flexibility and optimization. The real-time bidding aspect of open auctions enables advertisers to adjust their bidding strategies based on the value they place on specific ad impressions at a given moment.

However, open auctions also pose challenges, such as increased competition and the potential for ad fraud. Advertisers must carefully monitor their bidding strategies and ensure they are targeting the right audience to achieve their campaign goals.

Private Auction

Private Auction

In RTB advertising, a private auction is a type of auction where a limited number of buyers are invited to bid on available ad impressions. It provides more control over who can participate in the auction and usually involves high-value impressions or exclusive inventory.

In a private auction, publishers typically send invitations to select buyers based on factors such as their bidding history, target audience, or previous successful campaigns. The invited buyers are then given access to bid on the available ad inventory, which may include specific ad placements, timeslots, or demographics.

The key advantage of a private auction is that it allows publishers to establish direct relationships with preferred advertisers, ensuring that their ad impressions are sold at competitive prices. By limiting the number of buyers, publishers can drive up the competition for their inventory and potentially achieve higher CPMs.

For advertisers, participating in a private auction provides access to premium ad inventory that may not be available in open auctions. They can also benefit from increased transparency and control over where their ads are placed.

Private auctions are typically conducted through a demand-side platform (DSP) where advertisers can manage their bidding and optimize their campaigns. The winning bidder in the private auction will have their ad displayed to the targeted audience, while the other bidders will not be charged for their participation.

Overall, private auctions offer a more exclusive and controlled environment for buying and selling ad impressions, benefiting both publishers and advertisers looking for premium inventory and higher returns on their investments.

Programmatic Direct

Programmatic Direct is a method of buying and selling online advertising inventory directly between advertisers and publishers, without the involvement of third-party ad exchanges or networks. This approach allows for more control and transparency in the ad buying process.

In Programmatic Direct, advertisers can negotiate the terms and pricing of ad placements directly with publishers, usually through a private marketplace or a direct deal. This eliminates the need for bidding in real-time auctions, as is the case with real-time bidding (RTB) advertising.

One of the main advantages of Programmatic Direct is that it offers greater control over ad placements and targeting. Advertisers can choose specific publishers or websites where they want their ads to appear, ensuring that their ads are displayed in brand-safe and contextually relevant environments.

Additionally, Programmatic Direct often allows for premium ad placements, such as homepage takeovers or sponsorships, which may not be available through RTB. This can help advertisers achieve higher visibility and greater impact for their campaigns.

To facilitate Programmatic Direct transactions, advertisers and publishers typically use a programmatic platform that supports direct buying and selling. These platforms provide a streamlined process for negotiating deals, managing ad creative, and tracking campaign performance.

Overall, Programmatic Direct offers a more direct and efficient way for advertisers and publishers to collaborate on online advertising. This approach can provide benefits such as enhanced targeting capabilities, access to premium inventory, and increased control over campaign placements.

Targeting Options with RTB

RTB advertising offers a wide range of targeting options, allowing advertisers to reach their desired audience with precision and relevance. Here are some of the most common targeting options available in RTB:

1. Demographic Targeting: With RTB, advertisers can target their ads based on demographic factors such as age, gender, household income, education level, and marital status. This enables advertisers to deliver their message to the audience that is most likely to be interested in their products or services.

2. Geographic Targeting: Advertisers can target their ads to specific locations or regions, helping them focus on areas where their target audience is located. Whether they want to reach customers locally, nationally, or internationally, RTB allows advertisers to customize their targeting based on geographic parameters.

3. Behavioral Targeting: RTB platforms use data analysis to understand users’ online behavior, including their browsing history, search queries, and purchase intent. Advertisers can use this information to target ads to users who have shown an interest in relevant products or services, maximizing the chances of conversion.

4. Contextual Targeting: Advertisers can target their ads based on the context of a website or webpage. This means that ads can be displayed on websites or webpages that are relevant to the advertiser’s products or services. For example, a travel agency can target ads to websites that feature travel-related content.

5. Device Targeting: RTB allows advertisers to target their ads to specific devices, such as desktop computers, mobile phones, or tablets. This targeting option is particularly useful for campaigns that are designed specifically for certain devices, ensuring that the ads are displayed correctly and optimally.

6. Retargeting: RTB platforms allow advertisers to target users who have previously visited their website or interacted with their brand. By retargeting these users with relevant ads, advertisers can increase brand recall, encourage conversions, and improve overall campaign performance.

With these targeting options, advertisers can maximize their ROI and ensure that their ads are shown to the right people at the right time. By reaching a more targeted audience, advertisers can increase their chances of driving conversions and achieving their advertising goals.

FAQ:

What does RTB stand for?

RTB stands for Real-Time Bidding.

How does RTB advertising work?

RTB advertising works by allowing advertisers to bid in real-time for ad impressions. When a user visits a website, an ad space is made available through an auction. Advertisers then place bids on the ad space, and the highest bidder’s ad is served to the user. This entire process happens in milliseconds.

What are the benefits of RTB advertising?

RTB advertising offers several benefits, including better targeting capabilities, increased efficiency, and the ability to leverage data for more personalized ad campaigns. It also allows advertisers to optimize their campaigns in real-time and reach the right audience at the right time.

How is user data used in RTB advertising?

User data is used in RTB advertising to target ads to specific audiences. Advertisers can use data such as demographics, browsing behavior, and purchase history to identify the most relevant users for their ads. This helps maximize the effectiveness of ad campaigns and increase the chances of conversions.

Can small businesses benefit from RTB advertising?

Yes, small businesses can benefit from RTB advertising. It allows them to compete with larger advertisers on a level playing field, as they can set their own budgets and target specific audiences. RTB advertising also provides more transparency, control, and flexibility, making it a cost-effective option for small businesses.

What is RTB advertising?

RTB advertising, or real-time bidding advertising, is a digital advertising method that allows advertisers to bid on ad placements in real time. It is a type of programmatic advertising, where ads are bought and sold on an individual impression basis through an automated auction system.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Copyright © All rights reserved. | Newsphere by AF themes.